विशेष लेख


Volume-48, 24 February- 2 March, 2018

 

 

शब्द गहन प्रभाव छोड़ते हैं: उनका सही मूल्यांकन सीखें

श्रीप्रकाश शर्मा

‘‘शब्दों की जादुई शक्ति होती है. वे बेहद खुशी प्रदान कर सकते हैं या फिर गहरा दुख पहुंचा सकते हैं’’

                -सिग्मंड फ्रेउड

किसी भी भाषा के निर्माण में शब्दों की बुनियादी पहचान होती है. सभी शब्दों के विशिष्ट अर्थ होते हैं, ठोस बनावट होती है, विशेष संदर्भ होते हैं और उनके साथ विशेष संस्कार जुड़े होते हैं. शब्द किसी भाषा का निर्माण करते हैं और यदि उनका सही चयन और इस्तेमाल न किया जाए, तो वे भाषा और उसकी शक्ति को क्षति भी पहुंचाते हैं. शब्द जादुई ढंग से उपचार करते हैं, सहज आकर्षण प्रदान करते हैं और लोगों को अद्भुत संसक्ति के साथ मंत्रमुग्ध करते हैं.

इसके विपरीत शब्द ऐसी क्षति भी पहुंचा सकते हैं, जिसकी पूर्ति संभव नहीं है. वे व्यक्ति को हताश और परेशान भी करते हैं. इसी के साथ ही शब्द बुद्धिमता को समृद्ध बनाते हैं, हृदय को आनंदित और मस्तिष्क को चमक प्रदान करते हैं. लेकिन यह भी सही है कि शब्दों का गलत और अप्रासंगिक इस्तेमाल मानव जीवन के अनेक पहलुओं पर वज्रपात करता है तथा उनके दुष्प्रभावों का अंदाजा लगाना भी कठिन है.

प्रतियोगी परीक्षाओं में विशेष रूप से अंग्रेजी भाषा के शब्दों को वस्तुनिष्ठ प्रश्नों में शामिल किया जाता है. श्रीप्रकाश शर्मा का आलेख अंग्रेजी भाषा के शब्दों के संदर्भ में विशेष रूप से पठनीय है. विभिन्न प्रतियोगी परीक्षाओं की तैयारी करने वाले विद्यार्थियों के लिए इसके मूल अंग्रेजी पाठ का सारांश यहां प्रकाशित किया जा रहा है.

Jean Paul Sartre, the famous French philosopher and playwright, once had said, "Words are loaded pistols." So we need to be pretty much cautious about the correct use of words, especially in writing which gets permanently recorded in the print and which the intelligentsia across the nations use as references and cross-references.

First, a writer must mind avoiding the use of weak words and dead words in writing. Weak words are usually found in the form of weak verbs. Conventionally, a writer must always use strong verbs which convey actions correctly, emphatically, effectively and surgically.

Grammar says that verbs like 'be', 'has', and 'have' are spoilers and for effective writing a writer must do their best to avoid their uses. Let us take an example of how the use of weak and strong verbs makes differences while conveying action and imparting meanings:

Weak verb: The opposition parties were of the opinion that the proposed bill was likely to disturb the situation of communal harmony in the country and so they have planned to protest against it in the upcoming Parliament session.

Strong verb: The opposition parties have planned to protest against the proposed bill in the upcoming parliament session fearing that it may disturb the communal harmony in the country.

In addition, some verbs work as dead verbs or empty verbs which waste the paper and valuable time of the enlightened and erudite readers. So, the writers are essentially required to be very cautious about the proper use of words to make the meaning precise and expression very much clear.

Dead verb: Many of the students, who fail to score very good percent of marks in the examinations, often say that defective curriculum of the state board was the main reason of their problems.

Correct verb: Many of the students who fail to score very good percent of marks in the examinations pass the buck on the defective state curriculum.

Or, Many of the students who fail to score very good percent of marks in the examinations often blame it on the state curriculum.

WORDS MATTER MOST

Choose the closest meaning of the words given in the capital letters -

1. SHENANIGANS

 (A) mischief

(B) worry

(C) romantic

2.CUMBERSOME

(A). aggressive

(B) unreasonable

(C) difficult, hard to deal with

3. DENTURES

(A) duplicate

(B) false teeth

(C) scintillating

4.  DOLLOP

(A) spoil

(B) a quantity of something

(C) instigate

5. FRITTER

(A) to waste

(B) to volunteer

(C) to annoy

6. GAFFE

(A) social blunder

(B) dangerous

(C) poetic 

Answers: 1. A 2. C 3. B 4. B 5. A 6.A

Choose the word most nearly opposite to the words given in the capital letters

1. WANE

 (A)  to grow fast

(B) to respond

(C) to attack

2. UNCOUTH

(A) unaccustomed

(B) refined, sophisticated

(C) expert

3. WITHER

(A) to cut

(B) to bloom, to grow

(C) to shrink

4.  NADIR  

(A) cruel

(B) zenith, apex

(C) torture 

5. OBSCURE

(A) harsh

(B) explicit

(C) futile

6. OBFUSCATE

(A)  affirm

(B) to clarify

(C) to muddle

Answers 1. A 2. B .3.B 4. B 5. B  6.B

PHRASAL VERBS

TO PULL DOWN - to destroy, to demolish, to dismantle (The Mumbai municipality has started pulling down all buildings constructed on the encroached government land.)

TO PULL OUT - to start moving, to leave (The train pulled out in time despite dense fog in the city.)

TO PULL ONE'S SOCKS UP - to brave challenges or problems very courageously (The state government has decided to pull its socks up in the wake of drastic bad financial condition.)

TO SOB OUT - to tell a story or something while crying bitterly (The old woman, I came across yesterday in the market, sobbed out the whole story of her distressed life.)

TO SPEAK VOLUME ABOUT - to show or indicate the condition of something (The fast increasing annual fiscal deficit speaks volume about the mismanagement of resources by the present government at the centre.)

IDIOMS

Be nuts about (something or someone) - to be very much excited and enthusiastic about something or someone (The children are nuts about the upcoming festive seasons and holidays.)

A hard nut to crack - a very difficult problem (If you are very consistent in your efforts then getting through civil services examinations is not a hard nut to crack.)

To rise to the occasion - to be able to do what is required in a situation (He has always been a timid student. But when he was elected to the president of the students' union he so splendidly rose to the occasion.)

To rest on one's oars - to rest after a very hard work (After the annual examination, all the students of the local coaching institutes are resting on their oars.)

To pour oil on troubled waters - to try to assuage, to calm a difficult situation (He  had had a scuffle with his neighbours last night, but at last, his parents tried hard to pour oil on troubled waters.)

WORDS USUALLY USED IN MEDIA

The writing is on the wall (for)- used to indicate that something or someone will fail ( The writing is very much clear on the wall for the private sector industries which use coal as the raw material for producing their goods.)

Vicarious - the experience you get by watching someone doing it rather than doing it yourself (The parents usually get vicarious excitement and happiness form the meteoric successes of their own children.)

Touchstone issue - the subject or issue which tests the standard of something (Safeguarding the constitutional fundamental rights of the citizens is the touchstone of the succe-ssful running of the Indian democracy.)

The tip of the iceberg - a very small sign of the problem which is so enormous (The arrest of the hundreds of children traffickers in the city yesterday is just the tip of the iceberg.)

(The Author is Principal Jawahar Navodaya Vidyalaya Dinthar Veng Mamit; e-mail:spsharma.rishu@gmail.com)